|Elevation:||2,803 m (9,196 ft)||Prominence:||1,218 m|
|Ribu category:||Tinggi Sedang||Province:||Jawa Timur (East Java)|
|Google Earth:||kml||Other names:|
|Eruptions:||Ijen 1796, 1817, 1917, 1936, 1952, 1993-94, 1999, 2002|
The Merapi-Ijen volcano complex lies within the much larger Ijen caldera on the eastern-most tip of Java overlooking Banyuwangi, the point of departure for the ferry crossing to Bali. The calderais about 20 kilometres across and famous for its Arabica coffee plantations. Gunung Merapi – not to be confused with Central Java’s volcano of the same name or West Sumatra’s Gunung Marapi (sic) – is the highest point of the caldera complex, on its eastern rim. The Ijen crater lies immediately below, and on the western flank of, Gunung Merapi and contains Java’s largest crater lake renowned for the molten sulphur that exudes from vents in the crater. It is one of East Java’s most visited natural attractions. Most visitors do not venture beyond the crater, which is fascinating in its own right. In fact, it seems that very few seek to climb Gunung Merapi let alone reach its highest point (‘true summit’). The ranger post at Paltuding (1,850 m) is the start point for both the crater and mountain where permits are obtained and guides available.
Ijen Crater: Guides are not necessary for the pleasant walk to the crater. A well formed, three-metre wide, track leads two kilometres to Pondok Bunder (2,214 m) where the sulphur porters weight their loads and another kilometre to the crater rim (2,350 m). Most visitors take a break at the saddle on the crater rim (‘viewing point’) to view the sulphur vents and turquoise lake some 300 meters below. Here, you will see the porters carrying their 75-90 kg loads, in two baskets on their shoulders, up the steep crater wall and then a further three kms down hill to the collection point. Most porters make the journey twice a day.
You have three options at this point. You can climb to a high point, to the south-west, above the crater rim (2,400 m) for magnificent views; or, continue on around the rim, in an anti-clockwise direction, for even more expansive views of the lake and the larger Ijen caldera beyond. The third option is to take the very steep track down into the crater to the sulphur vents and highly acidic (H2SO4, pH = 0.5) lake. The descent normally takes about 20 minutes but you may spend longer taking photographs of the porters and the surreal surroundings. Give way to porters carrying their heavy loads up the track! Be alert to sulphur fumes emitting from the vents as these can make breathing difficult, even suffocating, especially when the winds changes in your direction. Face masks, dampened with water, can help to protect from the worst of the fumes. Needless to say, don’t even think about swimming in the lake!
Gunung Merapi lies directly above Ijen crater to the east. The route to the summit is via a ridge rising from the north and clearly visible against the skyline from the eastern side of the crater rim. Continue around the crater rim in an anti-clockwise direction from the ‘viewing point’. After about 2-300 meters, you will pass over a small knoll on the rim. About 20 metres after this knoll, an ill-defined track leads down through scrub into a ravine below and up again onto the summit ridge. Be careful to make a mental note of where the track leads up from the bottom of the ravine (assuming it is visible and not totally overgrown) otherwise you may have to ‘scrub bash’ your way up onto the summit ridge – an exhausting exercise! Once on the summit ridge it is a steady, but steep and not enjoyable climb, to the rim (2,650 m) through heavy undergrowth – bracken and burnt/dead trees. Long trousers are advisable.
The summit of Gunung Merapi consists of a now extinct, broken crater with five or so knolls (high rounded hills) around its rim. The old crater consists of several open, flat, sandy areas, alun-alun, that would probably be flooded in the wet season. A pleasant camp could be made on these alun-alun, out of the wind, if dry; otherwise, on the rim by clearing some undergrowth.
The ‘true summit’ (2,803 m), one of the five knolls on the rim, lies on the northeastern side overlooking Banyuwangi and Bali and is marked with an old Dutch triangulation pillar. After emerging onto the rim from the summit ridge, continue in a clockwise direction around the rim – if you want to reach the summit, do not descend into the sandy crater. As the ‘true summit’ is rarely climbed, you may have to bash your way through thick undergrowth. Also, note that the approach to this knoll is quite steep.
The views of Bali’s Gunung Agung and Lombok’s Gunung Rinjani from Java’s most eastern mountain would be fabulous especially at sunrise so a night on the summit would be worthwhile. Peaks to the west include the massifs of Gunung Raung and Argopuro. Gunung Baluran can be seen to the north. Perhaps the most impressive view is the Ijen crater lake 500 metres below best seen from a knoll marked with a small handmade sign (2,775 m) on the western side of the rim looking directly over the lake and the Ijen caldera beyond.
It is possible to reach, and return from, the ‘true summit’ of Gunung Merapi in one long day if you start early and do not spend too much time at Ijen crater on the way. However, it might be advisable to camp a night there and really explore what is such a great area. It seems that the local guides, who mainly take visitors to the Ijen crater, have little knowledge of the route up Gunung Merapi and even less about which of the knolls is the ‘true summit’. In fact, there is really no need for a guide if you can find your way from the Ijen crater rim across the ravine and onto the summit ridge. The rest of the climb – up the summit ridge and around the summit of Gunung Merapi – is quite transparent. If you do hire a guide, make sure that he, at least, knows the track across the ravine. Of course, the ranger post at Paltuding may insist that you be accompanied by a guide and even dissuade/forbid you from the climb if not! If you plan to hire porters to camp on the mountain then you will need to make more detailed arrangements.
Bagging information compiled by Nick Hughes from information provided by Heinz von Holzen, Nicholas Hughes, Mykhailo Pavliuk and Dan Quinn (updated November 2013)
|Getting there||Better approached from the north although the route from Banyuwangi is passable in a jeep.|
|Accommodation||There are plenty of places to stay nearby because Ijen is a leading tourist attraction.|
|Permits||A nightmare! Officially you are supposed to arrange a permit in advance from some office or other in Surabaya. The information on this office and why it is required is very unclear. There is normally not a problem just climbing up yourself but you may have to ‘tip’ the staff in the Kawah Ijen office.|
|Water sources||None available – take sufficient supplies with you.|
|Local Average Monthly Rainfall (mm):|
Origins and Meaning
‘Ijen’ is Javanese for ‘alone’ or ‘lonely’. Merapi means ‘mountain of fire’ and from the appearance of the craters it is obvious that Gunung Merapi was a very active volcano in previous centuries.