- Elevation: 2,372 m (7,782 ft)
- Prominence: 641 m
- Ribu category: Spesial
- Province: Jawa Timur (East Java)
- Google Earth: kml
- Other names: None, but there are numerous names for different peaks on the range. Anjasmoro is the name of both the range itself and also one of the tops.
Occasionally people email to ask about the huge massif known as Anjasmoro to the west of Arjuno-Welirang. This is a vast and – for Java – wild range, with a name of Sanskrit origins. Alfred Russel Wallace visited Wonosalam but described the area as being on the slopes of Mount Arjuno and indeed they together form Taman Hutan Raya Raden Soerjo (Raden Soerjo Forest Park). According to the Jombang City Guide website, “when interpreted per word, anjas means a stronghold or fortress, while asmara means love. When combined, Anjasmara means the stronghold of love or the stronghold of joy and sorrow.”
Inextricably linked with the Majapahit era, the Trowulan archaeological site near Mojokerto features Hindu temples and ancient graves, including – in the Sentonorejo Tomb Complex – the grave of Goddess Anjasmoro herself, Raden Ayu Anjasmoro next to Ratu Ayu Kencana Wungu (the Majapahit Queen).
At the time of writing, in 2019, unless you are on the Carangwulung (Wonosalam) or Rejosari routes at the northern side you are unlikely to meet any other hiking groups at all, even on weekends! Pleasingly, there are still hornbills living in this area.
In brief, the Carangwulung, Wonosalam trail to Puncak Cemorosewu is excellent for views of the remarkable Gunung Bokolorobubuh and can be accomplished in half a day. The Rejosari, Jatirejo trail to Puncak Semar and Puncak Bayangan is excellent for getting quite close to the remarkable Gunung Boklorobubuh and gaining an understanding of the range as a whole. It can be accomplished in one long day but it is better to camp one night at Puncak Semar. Finally, the Cangar route to Anjasmoro top and Gunung Biru is the best trail on the highest ridges of the whole range and can also be accomplished as a dayhike by the fit and experienced.
Anjasmoro has no craters but there are hot springs to be found on its slopes including at Pacet to the north-east and at Cangar to the east at the col with Arjuno-Welirang. One of its major tops and by far its most unique-looking, Boklorobubuh, is often remarked upon by hikers on nearby mountains staring over at this unusual summit. Indeed, it can be seen clearly from Gunung Butak, Penanggungan and Arjuno-Welirang and has a very different profile depending on the angle from which you see it.
There are three main trailheads on very different sides of the range – Wonosalam on the north-western side, Rejosari on the northern side, and Cangar on the eastern side – but a traverse from one to another is either not possible at all due to steepness of terrain and lack of connecting trails, or because it would require a week or more to complete as part of a serious expedition across numerous different ridges.
In addition to the three main trails that are known to hiking communities, there are numerous other minor trails scattered across the range, most of which see very few hikers, or are just typically used by farmers or hunters occasionally, and many of these routes are heavily overgrown and therefore incredibly time-consuming to use. Across the vast mountainous area, there are also many sections of very steep terrain and some cliffs that are really only for expert rock climbers.
As you will see below, exploring the whole mountain range requires at least 4 or 5 different outings. To try to minimise confusion over all the different peaks, the following are the six principal mountains in the Anjasmoro range, in order of height (all heights from the usually reliable Bakosurtanal maps), which are dealt with below in reverse order.
Gunung 1 – Unnamed peak – 2,372m
Gunung 2 – Gunung Biru – 2,331m
Gunung 3 – Anjasmoro Top – 2,269m
Gunung 4 – Gunung Boklorobubuh – 2,230m
Gunung 5 – Gunung Argowayang – 2,197m
Gunung 6 – Gunung Gede (Puncak Cemorosewu) – 1,866m
FROM THE NORTH-WEST: Carangwulung, Wononsalam, Jombang trail to Puncak Cemorosewu (Gunung Gede, 1,866m).
The most popular trail in the Anjasmoro range starts from the village of Segunung (755m), Carangwulung, Wonosalam near Jombang to the north-west. This is one of the most famous durian areas in East Java. The trail goes nowhere near the highest peaks in the range but is an exceptionally pleasant hike with fabulous views from the top in good weather. If you only want to do one hike in the range and aren’t too bothered about reaching the highest peak then this one is definitely recommended.
Cak Kancil (+6282337535342) is the usual guide for this hike, and he is very friendly, fit and knowledgeable and so comes totally recommended. He also lives in the village and will typically be waiting for you when you arrive.
From Pos Singgah (755m, registration post and starting point next to Masjid Jabal Nur), the route follows a stone track on the opposite side of the road as it leads up through coffee and cassava plantations and past a couple of barns. There are some nice views down to the surrounding East Javan countryside. A minor ridge (960m) is gained after around 30 minutes, and if you have taken a local guide then he might offer you a delicious guava (jambu) fruit or two from one of the small trees here.
Pos 1 (Pos Kancil) soon follows (1,011m) and then the trail get steeper at a section known as Tanjakan Mbok Mbok. The trail enters proper forest at around 1,150m above sea level and not long after you will be at Pos 2 (Pos Salwa / Lumpang, 1,220m). It should have taken you around 60-90 minutes in total to reach this point.
The trekking beyond here is really pleasant – a combination of reasonable gradient, nice temperature and some superb views westwards. At an elevation of around 1,375m, you should in clear conditions such as most early mornings be able to see the Gunung Liman / Limas / Wilis massif to the west and further beyond to Gunung Lawu on the border of Central Java.
Pos 3 (Pos Bambu / Pring Rusak, 1,438m) is around 30 minutes beyond Pos 2 and in the rainy season you may meet leeches on this section. This is the last point for water, with a sign pointing the way down to the source on the left of the trail. Beyond Pos 3 you should hopefully be able to see the rocky pyramid peak of Gunung Kelud / Kelut on the right side of the trail.
The trail continues up before flattening out somewhat at an area known as Hutan Panjang (sign at 1,620m). A small spot for camping follows at 1,728m just before Puncak Bayangan (1,733m) where you could easily fit 4 tents. In total it should have taken you around 3 hours to reach this point. And it is here that you first get some incredible views of the other peaks in the Anjasmoro range.
Down to the left (eastwards) you should be able to see some very unusual, steep, dramatic peaks just a few kilometres away. This is Gunung Boklorobubuh, the most iconic of all the peaks in the Anjasmoro range and also one of the toughest to reach the summit of (see below for details). It’s probably more impressive when seen from another nearby peak as compared to standing on top of it, and various different peaks in the range provide a very different perspective (and therefore considerably different shape and outline) from each other.
There are other great views too. Behind and just to the right of the huge blocky chunk of Boklorobubuh is the much higher Arjuno-Welirang range. Welirang is likely to have a substantial plume of smoke trailing off into the sky above. Across the other side of the valley down to the south of Puncak Bayangan is the high ridge of Gunung Argowayang. There are no reports of anyone having reached the top of this, as you will read below, although it is likely to be yet another superb viewpoint. Between Arjuno-Welirang and Argowayang are a cluster of forest-clad peaks and ridges and these are actually the highest ones in the Anjasmoro range (Gunung Biru, Anjasmoro Top, and the un-named highest peak at 2,372m).
From Puncak Bayangan, it’s just another 20 minutes to the highest point and final trail destination known as Puncak Cemorosewu where the views to Boklorobubuh are even better. First you need to drop down a little way to the west (left) before the trail ascends again. Just before the summit, ask your guide to point out a few small pieces of rusted metal which are the remnants from a plane crash here in 1964.
The highest point here is marked with a narrow cement post. The peak is so named because of the many pine trees (‘cemara‘ / ‘cemoro‘) on the higher slopes. ‘Sewu’ means ‘thousand‘ or simply ‘many‘. Gunung Cemorosewu is also known on topographic maps as Gunung Gede (Gunung 6) which simply means large mountain.
However, ignore the signs at the summit suggesting this peak is 2,282m high (a figure presumably meant for Anjasmoro peak/top, the third-highest in the range which is near Cangar) – it is actually about 400 metres lower than that. After a quick rest and photos, it is definitely worthwhile going beyond the peak, dropping down a couple of minutes to a rock with a layer formation unsurprinsingly called Watu Lapis. Down a little way further is a grassy opening where no trees obstruct the view of the steep western cliffs of Boklorobubuh. This is the best photo spot and – as is typical in Java – you ideally want to be here by 9am or earlier for optimum conditions.
South of the peak, after a considerable drop, the ridge continues over several other peaks reaching Argowayang (2,197m) after several kilometres, which is the highest peak on the western side of the mountain range (see below for further information). To the south-west of Cemorosewu are a few lesser peaks including Gunung Watujombalan (1,616m) and Puncak Alang Alang (over 1,700m), named after the cogon grass which grows there. These subsidiary peaks are sometimes hiked from the west at Desa Jarak.
Many local hikers camp at the summit of Cemorosewu, and in doing so have a great chance of really impressive views at sunrise or sunset. However, given that if you are not lugging tents up the mountainside you could be up in around 3 hours and back down in 2, it is quite possible to do this as a dayhike or half a day, but best set out as early as you can if you are hoping for clear views at the top.
FROM THE WEST AND SOUTH-WEST: Galengdowo, Wonosalam Selatan trek to Puncak Tapak Bunder (1,482m) and Ngebrong, Pujon trek to Gunung Argowayang (2,197m)
The highest labelled peak on the Bakosurtanal map (1:25000 Pujon 1508-324) on the western half of the Anjasmoro mountain range is actually Argowayang (2,197m) (Gunung 5) which appears about 5km to the south of Gunung Gede / Cemorosewu and is best accessed from the southern side near Ngebrong (1,235m), Tawangsari, Pujon.
Less than half a kilometre before the village of Ngebrong, a farm trail leads off to the right through chili and cabbage fields. Before long, this meets the top of a minor ridge (1,346m) which can be followed, ultimately, all the way to the top of Gunung Argowayang. The trail is very, very rarely used by hikers but frequently used by local villagers collecting wood and so on from the forest and in December 2019 was clear enough for the majority of the route.
At around 1,534m, the trail enters scrubby forest before veering left and then steeply up the side of Argowayang. The path is more difficult to follow from this point with denser vegetation, but there are no junctions so simply following the ridge will lead you in the right direction. Look out for eagles and other bird life plus monkeys thrashing through the branches.
After a couple of false tops including a Pos (2,119m) where you could fit one small tent, the unmarked and overgrown top of Argowayang (2,197m) is reached. It will have taken most hikers around 4 hours to reach this point from the village road. The views to Boklorobubuh are likely to be magnificent but unfortunately on our visit we had low cloud obscuring the panorama. A small triangular-shaped stone sits near the highest spot.
Were there no steep cliffs further north, it might be possible to continue all the way to Cemorosewu above Carangwulung as part of a multi-day expedition, but the cluster of peaks inbetween (Gunung Gede – a different peak with Gede as the name! – and Gunung Gapit) have very steep sections probably making such an attempt completely impossible.
Returning to Ngebrong takes around 3 hours and it is possible to cut down through the plantations fields to meet a track leading directly to the village itself which may be of use if you have left your motorbike or car there. Note the incredibly impressive village mosque, which is architecturally quite beautiful and constructed of stone and glass.
There is another trail on this western side of the range which is recommended to those wishing to truly explore the area. The village of Galengdowo (650m), Wonosalam Selatan, is known in the local area as a place to go camping, visit waterfalls during the rainy season, and enjoy the local coffee. In 2019, it was also possible to hike to a minor side peak of the range called Tapak Bunder (1,482m). Much like the minor peaks on the northern side of the range, it is a superb viewpoint in clear conditions.
The road beyond Galendowo actually leads up to above 800m where an unmarked trail heads off to the left. Motorbikes can even be taken up the track a kilometre or so to around 860m where there is a small solar-powered flood monitoring device. Another turn is needed at an unmarked junction (890m), leading to the right, steeply up the hillside.
After a tough 30-45 minutes, a minor ridge is reached at around 1,108m. The trail flattens out here for a while, but may be overgrown if nobody has been here recently so a local guide is essential. A minor and easily missed junction (1,225m) down to the left goes to Desa Jarak but to continue up stay to the right. Certain parts of the ridge are covered in spiny vegetation that needs circumnavigating whereas other sections are really pleasant woodland (such as at 1,274m).
Another steep section up over a fern (‘pakis’) covered area follows before the summit is reached. Most hikers can be up here in under 3 hours, or under 4 if you have walked all the way from Galengdowo village. The name is not given on the Bakosurtanal map and their figure of 1,476m seems perhaps a little under the truth.
The view is surprisingly excellent. To the north-east is Puncak Cemorosewu. To the east are Gunung Gapit (1,990m – labelled Gunung Pegat on some maps) and Gunung Gede (2,129m) which together form the middle section of the lengthy western ridge that runs north-south from Cemorosewu all the way via Gapit and Gede to Argowayang.
Like much of the range, there are precipitous drops here and even reaching the main western ridge from the outlying top of Tapak Bunder seems impossible due to the steepness of Gunung Gentonggowok / Gentong Growah (1,993m) and lack of trail between Tapak Bunder and Gentonggowok. Therefore reaching Argowayang peak from here is probably out of the question.
But the finest peak that can be seen from here is of course the iconic Boklorobubuh, which peeks over the tops of the western ridge between Cemorosewu and Gunung Gapit. As usual, early morning is your best chance of this excellent view.
Tapak Bunder itself is an interesting spot, with a stone just below the highest point which seems to be used by local people for kejawen (traditional Javanese) rituals, complete with offerings including coins and eggs.
You can be back down at the road in just over 2 hours. For more information on Tapak Bunder and on Galengdowo in general, please contact the very knowledgeable Pak Endon 08525 9005057.
According to some online sources, Gunung Argowayang was originally called Margowayang, but other local sources suggest they are two different peaks and that Margowayang is much closer to the villages and well under 2,000m in elevation (perhaps what is labelled Gunung Jembek on some maps).
To get a proper understanding of this whole range would probably take weeks, and it is certain that this portion of the Anjasmoro range is a very mystical one, with historical stories of the sunrise creating moving shadows like a Javanese puppet performance, mysterious gamelan melodies drifting across the forested tops, and even tales of human bones being found in this remote and rarely-visited forest area.
Various trails FROM THE NORTH including from Rejosari and Nawangan, Jatirejo, Mojokerto towards Gunung Kukusan (2,013m) and Gunung Boklorobubuh (2,230m).
The iconic and impossibly steep-looking chunky peak seen to the east of Gunung Gede is Gunung Boklorobubuh (2,230m) (Gunung 4). It is very noticeable from the slopes of the much higher Gunung Butak to the south, poking out over the top of the lower tops surrounding it. The geological story behind it must be fascinating, as it appears almost contorted beyond belief and ‘changes shape’ radically depending on your position in relation to it!
It’s connected by a steep, narrow and supposedly impassable ridge to the slightly more accessible Gunung Kukusan (2,013m). Boklorobubuh is the highest peak in the northern half of the Anjasmoro mountain range but only a very small number of adventurous local hikers have made it to the very top (most recently in May 2019 via Nawangan), typically requiring 3 nights camping to achieve such a feat in this remote location.
A lot of local people have never heard of Boklorobubuh and actually call it Kukusan. This confusion may go back a long time and have a complex history, so we are sticking with the names as given on the official Bakosurtanal map. Gunung Kukusan (Mount Steamer) is so named because in Java steamers are usually pointed like a cone and this sharp peak is a similar shape when seen from certain angles.
Alas, this name seems to be referring more to the shape of Boklorobubuh from certain angles as Kukusan itself is less steep and far less iconic when seen alongside its nearly 200m higher neighbour – but it is still quite steep and pointy nonetheless from some angles and all of the peaks in this area are comprised of generally very narrow ridges.
The lower and more accessible northern slopes of this cluster of peaks are not too far from the cities of Surabaya, Mojokerto and Jombang, and so it is no surprise that there are numerous tourist attractions in the foothills including minor mountain viewpoints. If you look at the map you will see several ridges and valleys running roughly south-north to the northern plains. A number of these ridges could be used as potential access routes for those wishing to explore the area to the north of Boklorobubuh as far as Gunung Kukusan.
Unlike the densely-forested southern and western parts of the Anjasmoro massif, many of the lower parts of these northern ridges are deforested, with long waist-high grass covering them. This means very, very slow going except in rare places where a clear and regularly-used trail has been made and maintained, such as the trail from Rejosari, but on the plus side offers panoramic views in all directions. It also means direct sunlight and little shade, so hats and suncream and extra water are all essentials.
Another more informal name for Boklorobubuh is Puncak Piramid (pyramid peak), which is how Boklorobubuh (or ‘Kukusan’ as some mistaken locals call it) appears from some angles – including from Goa Sigolo-golo (Sigolo-golo Cave), Air Terjun Sekelip (Sekelip Waterfall) in Wonosalam and on the road out to the starting point for the trek to Puncak Cemorosewu from Carangwulung.
Further east near Mojokerto, the peak has a very different appearance from below. Less the sharp pyramid, and more the complex chunky block comprised of numerous tops forming the imposing head of several valleys.
Bukit Semar (933m) is a fairly easy hike from the nearest road at Desa Dilem (approximately 300m), and is growing in popularity as a really nice viewpoint from which to see the northern ridges of the range. Note that this is not to be confused with the much higher Gunung / Puncak Semar, which is an important top high up on the ridges (see further below). It takes hikers around 2-3 hours up from the basecamp in Dilem and around 2 hours to descend. So although you can camp up at the top, as some locals do every Saturday night, many choose to do it as a relatively short day-hike, but as always, the earlier you set off the better chance of clear views.
If you arrange a guide in advance (try Pak Paiman on +6282132970587) then you may be able to get permission to use a private road up from the north at a security post (215m) at Jatidukuh which leads past lots of dragonfruit (‘buah naga’) cacti and large buildings, up as far as 612m up the mountainside. This cuts out the steep section between Pos 2 and 3 but also the water source on the trail which is down at Pos 2. This is ideal for hiking up for sunrise or if you have very limited time as motorbikes can just about make it beyond Pos 3 Hutan Randu (640m) during the dry season. From there it is around one hour up a pleasant ridge via Pos 4 Pal Batas (a simple shelter at 793m) and a camp spot (840m) to the summit camp and lovely viewpoint taking in Welirang, Boklorobubuh, and all the grassy northern ridges of the vast Anjasmoro range.
You can actually go a little way beyond the summit signs, but this is a rough trail and over increasingly risky terrain. It seems unlikely that this ridge would ever be considered easier than the Rejosari route in terms of getting up to anywhere near the stunning Boklorobubuh. Nevertheless, it really is a brilliant photo spot.
Another popular spot in the foothills is Watu Candi (also known to some as Candi Pari or Mahkota Prabhu), which appears to be a vertical cliff-face and is a relatively short distance from the Bukit Semar viewpoint and is perhaps best photographed from there.
The two other trailheads for much more significant expeditions (Rejosari and Nawangan) from the north may start just a few kilometres apart but their trails are very different.
The Rejosari trail dubbed ‘the north gate of Anjasmoro’ is growing in popularity as it is the closest major one to Surabaya and has been well-promoted to local hiking groups, so the first few kilometres into the hills to easy photo destinations are on well used paths. Note that the trailhead is at only around 441m above sea level and it is almost impossible to attempt to reach Boklorobubuh from this trail due to the steepness of the terrain between Kukusan and Boklorobubuh. Reaching Kukusan is technically possible, but very few people go beyong the accessible photo spots and the final safe place to visit is Puncak Bayangan (1,833m on Bakosurtanal map, 1,847m on GPS) which is 30 minutes beyond Puncak Semar and not to be confused with the different Puncak Bayangan on the Carangwulung trail to Puncak Cemorosewu.
There are actually a couple of nearby trails near the start, with the eastern one via a couple of minor waterfalls (Coban Bidadari and Coban Pandan Arum) leading along the ridge towards Gunung Kukusan, and the western one to a few pleasant photos spots such as Bukit Jengger or Puncak B9 which is a popular camping spot at weekend.
A group of volunteers come to Rejosari every weekend and they are doing their best to help promote and care for this special area which is really not that far from Surabaya, Indonesia’s second largest city. You can also buy local produce such as Kabegjan Coffee. Have a look at the BasecampAnjasmoro page on Instagram. The group best-known for leading treks in this area is Ojek Adventure, who can be contacted via Pak Noe/Bogang on +628563304707. For wider logistics such as transport or arranging a larger group wishing to visit, speak to Pak Faisal on +6282244039302.
The most direct trail from Rejosari to the higher slopes of the mountain leads up from the warung and basecamp through pleasant pine woodland to a ridge (562m) where there are views to Gunung Welirang in the distance. From here, the ridge leads through light forest and bamboo, passing a junction (706m) for the popular Coban Bidadari waterfall on the right (under ten minutes away) and then Umpak Wolu (854m, also sometimes known as Pos 4 if the sign is correct). Umpak Wolu is an interesting spot, with numerous cube-shaped rocks that are clearly old and quite possibly ancient. Not much is known about them. Look out for snakes in this area! And also hornbills!
After some tall vegetation and large clumps of bamboo to contend with, Savanna Pandan Arum (1,083m, Gunung Orooroombo at 1,085m on the Bako map) is the next major landmark and is perhaps the most popular camping spot on this trail with enough space for at least 5 tents. The views to the flat plains near Mojokerto, north-east to Gunung Penanggungan and south to the higher slopes of the range are indeed pleasant. The summit is crowned with a flagpole and a medium-sized rock.
To the south, down below in the valley is Coban Pandan Arum which is an impressive waterfall during the rainy season but sometimes completely dry in September and October. It is not accessible from this trail but the best views are probably from above anyway. It should have taken you around 90 minutes to 2 hours to reach this point.
Beyond Pandan Arum, the trail continues along the ridge with more tall vegetation, large bamboo clumps and a couple of steeper sections to Pondok Dadap (1,392m – known as Pos 6 and sometimes spelt Ndadap according to the sign), Igir-Igir Dowo (1,508m – a cluster of rocks on a ridge) and finally Puncak Semar (1,708m – very different from Bukit Semar mentioned above). Just before Puncak Semar is an overgrown part of trail that requires clambering steeply up over bracken-like ferns.
Puncak Semar is a pleasant spot with a handful of pine trees and in clear weather a fabulous view ahead to Puncak Bayangan (a pyramid-esque grassy peak apparently also known as Sigiran to nearby Blentreng residents), Gunung Kukusan and Gunung Boklorobubuh itself towering behind. There is enough space for about 4 small tents here and given that the best chance of clear views is in the early morning it definitely makes sense to camp here rather than lower down where the views are less impressive. This is also the point where the ridge from Blentreng meets the ridge from Rejosari so be sure to carefully remember your return route as there is no sign at present. It should have taken you around 4 or 5 hours to get here from the Rejosari trailhead, assuming no long breaks, and some folk can do it in less than 4.
In September 2019, there is a new sign here marking ‘Puncak Semar’. Hopefully this spot will grow in popularity as it surely deserves to be better-known to hikers in East Java and beyond. The best views are actually a couple of minutes further along the ridge at an open area with long grass or reeds. To the east you can clearly see Welirang and Penanggungan, rising above the many lower ridges on the Anjasmoro range. To the west you can see the partly-forested peak of Cemorosewu and to the south-west you can see the twin peaks of the mysterious Argowayang. Much further south, behind Bokolorobubuh, you may be able to spot Puncak 2,372m (Gunung 1), the highest peak in the entire range near Gunung Biru. It is this panorama that makes this spot an essential place to visit for those wishing to get a full understanding of the Anjasmoro range.
Beyond Puncak Semar, the fun really begins as the ridge drops down a little before narrowing and then rising steeply up to the top of Puncak Bayangan (1,833m on the Bakosurtanal map and 1,847m on the GPS). It takes about 30 minutes from Puncak Semar. Those with a fear of heights may not be keen on this as the drops on either side are considerable and there is one point where you may need a hand to pull you up a particularly steep and exposed part. Although Welirang is now obscured by Kukusan, the views from Puncak Bayangan are well worth the effort, with Kukusan on the left and Bokolorobubuh straight ahead. There is the remains of a cement base on a lower part of this peak (1,827m on GPS) which may have once been a triangulation pillar. The ridge itself is far too narrow to camp here and the exposure considerable so do take real care.
For most, this is the furthest point that it is definitely safe to visit on the Rejosari trail due to the very challenging terrain beyond towards Kukusan. You can descend the ridge a little way to the col (around 1,800m) between Puncak Bayangan and Kukusan but in places it is too narrow for most hikers to wish to proceed any further. There is an impressive stone ‘finger’ on the ridge which needs skirting round carefully to avoid certain injury!
Perhaps the best thing about the Rejosari trail is the opportunity for fairly close-up photos of Boklorobubuh. There are some impressive photos available online (including in our gallery) of a local hiker named Imam Ma’shum (Saka Biil) with Boklorobubuh towering above him seemingly just a kilometre or so beyond – we can confirm that this was taken on Gunung Kukusan, which is beyond the technical or mental limits of most hikers!
Imam Ma’shum, who works for Lereng Tambora Outdoor Store in nearby Jombang, took these photos in late July 2018. One of them confirms that there is an old triangulation pillar at the top of Kukusan (presumably built in Dutch times) next to a modern metal sign made by hikers stating Kukusan is 2,025 metres high. According to the trusty Bakosurtanal map, Kukusan is 2,013m with a second, higher southern peak about 700 metres south towards Boklorobubuh at 2,024m. This second, higher peak is presumably the steep grassy peak seen in Imam’s photos between him and Boklorobubuh.
Therefore it is certainly technically feasible for the brave and experienced to reach Kukusan if you can handle exceptionally narrow and steep terrain, and from Bayangan to Kukusan probably wouldn’t take much longer than 90 minutes one-way, but getting beyond Kukusan to Boklorobubuh is simply too difficult as it becomes near-vertical.
It may be disappointing not to be able to reach the highest slopes but, even if like most hikers you don’t reach Kukusan, Puncak Semar and Bayangan offer a great panorama of the imposing cliffs of Gunung Boklorobubuh.
In summary, this trek is typically done over 2 days and 1 night, although super-fast hikers willing to risk cloudy views at midday could just about complete it as a day-hike. Rejosari to Puncak Semar takes 4-5 hours (depending on how much weight you are carrying) and it is only a further 30 minutes to Puncak Bayangan. Fast hikers can be back down at Rejosari in 3-4 hours.
If you still have time in the area you can visit one of the waterfalls in the area or consider one of the nearby western trails that are much less demanding and follow a lower ridgeline offering excellent views. Just 90 minutes from the start is Gunung Joko Mujung (1,007m), a popular ridge for photography and a camping spot several kilometres to the north-west of Gunung Kukusan. It is appears that Mr Joko Mujung is part of a local legend or ancient story connected with the lower slopes of Anjasmoro and various locations here.
The area around Gunung Joko Mujung is often mistakenly also referred to as Bukit Jengger or Watu / Batu Jengger (Jengger Rock), but in actual fact Jengger Rock is further beyond at an elevation of at least 1,100m. Jengger means ‘crest’ or ‘comb’ and describes the shape of the rock, appearing a bit like the strange red comb on top of a chicken’s head. Batu Jengger is in a hidden location and is rather dangerous, with one hiker apparently dying in an accident there in 2018, so some locals want to keep the exact location of the rock secret.
The Nawangan trail starts slightly higher at around 650m beyond Tawangrejo but does not follow the ridge line and is much less popular and less formal. This is the route to use if you want to make an attempt on summiting Boklorobubuh as part of a multi-day expedition. Slightly further west of the Rejosari trail, it is much less frequented and leads along a valley to Kali Pait before ascending steeply to Hutan Gelaran and Watu Lumpang and cutting in from the west to the true high point of Boklorobubuh, avoiding the ridgeline of Gunung Semar and the Rejosari trail altogether. This trail is much tougher than the Rejosari one, especially as it is less often used and immensely steep, so most hiking groups need three full days of hiking or preferably four days for the return trek. But it is alleged that you can reach the top of Boklorobubuh.
There is actually a possible third route up from this side of the range, which meets the Rejosari trail at Puncak Semar, from Blentreng (550m), Desa Ngembat, Gondang. This is basically a rarely-used alternative to the Rejosari route, and though it does have its disadvantages at the moment (overgrown, more technical, more time required) it is worth recording here for if the trail becomes easier in the future. Like the Rejosari route, Boklorobubuh remains inaccessible but Kukusan is – at least in theory – potentially reachable, as the Rejosari ridge and Blentreng ridge meet at Gunung Semar.
At the end of the road through Blentreng is a small junction (568m), with a narrow stony track leading off to the right. Most hikers will sensibly start here but if you have a trailbike or don’t mind potentially damaging your regular motorbike then you can continue for several kilometres. The trail follows a pleasant river, the Kali Kelopo, through coffee plantations and there are a couple of minor wooden bridges to cross including at 626m above sea level.
Those with a trailbike might make it almost as far as Makam Mbah Setro (811m), the grave site of a notable local man, but most will think better and leave their bikes further down. To walk to the grave site from Blentreng would take about 2 hours, and given the terrain you only save about 30 minutes by taking a bike in with you. The grave area is the last spot for reliable water so fill up and take plenty.
At the stone with Mbah Setro on it, do not take a left to the site itself but follow the well used trail right, through the bamboo and steeply up the hillside to the west. It takes around one hour to gain the ridge (1,050m), from where there are great views to the many other ridges of the northern edge of the Anjasmoro range and also across eastwards to the cliffs of Watu Candi (also known to some as Candi Pari or Mahkota Prabhu).
It is slow going, with sometimes shoulder-high grass obscuring both the vague path below and the views further afield to Gunung Penanggungan. Because of the terrain, whereas normally you might cover 3 kilometres quite easily in an hour on a ridge with a clear trail, it can be as slow as 1 kilometre per hour here. This is no regular hiking trail and the key thing to remember is to stay on the crest of the ridge.
Camping is usually required if you are aiming to reach Gunung Semar or Kukusan, but the ridge is narrow and not very flat, so be prepared to make do with an uneven floor! On the positive side, you have a very good chance of seeing hornbills in this area.
Not long after you have gained the ridge, at an elevation of around 1,060m is a rock next to a small tree which is great for photos and a short rest. After ascending, another boulder follows at 1,193m.
Aside from the trail being barely existent and progress being incredibly slow, the main issue preventing Gunung Semar (and higher peaks) from being easily accessed from this route is an awkward and exposed rock ledge (1,277m) which is reached after around 3 hours from the grave site down in the valley. The ledge is just a few inches too narrow to be sure enough on, and the drop on the other side is considerable and obscured by vegetation. The rock itself offers little in the way of useful contours to hold on to and many will think it is not worth the risk.
This rock cannot be avoided as it is perched on the narrow ridge. Confident scramblers may have no problem with it, but a serious injury or worse would result if you fell off so it is recommended that anyone thinking of coming here and hoping to get to Gunung Semar or Kukusan ought to bring a rope at the very least or else take a considerable risk. Easier if you are small and wiry like many Indonesians, but tougher for generally wider and heavier Europeans.
If there was both a clear trail and a reliable, fixed rope at the rock ledge, then it would be quite possible to hike to Gunung Semar and back as a day-hike. At present, unless either you have ropes with you, are technically very confident or if things change, we definitely recommend hiking in towards Gunung Semar and Kukusan from Rejosari instead. Ridges further east look at least as difficult as the Blentreng ridge, with cliffs and steep, exposed sections.
For those wishing for something easier in the Blentreng area, in 2019 there is a short, easy trek to a minor peak in the northern foothills called Gunung Buthak (836m according to Bakosurtanal) which – like Bukit Semar – is apparently a very good viewpoint early in the morning.
Note that you can also explore the northern, grassy ridges as far east as near Pacet. You can gain the ridge above the village of Gumeng (500m) which is an interesting spot with a monument to a battle with Dutch forces here in December 1948. This ridge eventually leads to Bokorobubuh, but as with most approaches is almost certainly overgrown and technically difficult in places, with steep sections and minor cliff faces requiring ropes. Nevertheless, the lower slopes are a great place for photos of the higher peaks of the range, and this area is not too far from the large city of Surabaya. Named peaks in this area include Gunung Mrasih which is labelled Gunung Bakal (1,010m) on the Bakosurtanal map.
FROM THE EAST: Cangar, Malang trail to Anjasmoro peak (2,269m) and Gunung Biru (2,331m).
The third main trail starts at the defunct Pabrik Jamur (mushroom factory) at Cangar (1,723m), to the east of the Anjasmoro range, and basically near the col between Anjasmoro and Arjuno-Welirang. From the defunct mushroom factory (where there is space to leave a car), follow the road for just 2 or 3 minutes up to a deserted wooden building and then onto a narrow path into the vegetation (1,750m). There are no signs so you may require local help here.
Once you are on the trail it is pretty obvious, with plastic ribbons attached to trees every so often, as the trail gets steeper and steeper and you enter denser forest. After about 90 minutes you should have reach the ridge (2,144m). There is a little flat spot here suitable for pitching a single tent, but if you follow the ridge to the left (roughly south-west) then you will reach a minor peak with a summit sign on it (2,220m – the sign says 2,227m) followed by the true highest point (2,269m on Bakosurtanal maps, 2,280m on my GPS, and 2,282m according to local hikers) of the peak known as Anjasmoro (Gunung 3). It should have taken you no more than about 2 hours and 30 minutes to reach this spot, which in November 2018 had an Indonesian flag tied to a tree, but none of the usual metal signs. The space for tents is a little better here – perhaps enough for 3 small ones.
Whilst this peak may be called Anjasmoro, it is not the highest of the Anjasmoro mountain range, which consists of a network of ridges with numerous peaks. Anjasmoro first peak is actually only the third-highest top in the range, after Gunung Biru and an unnamed higher peak beyond Gunung Biru.
Beyond this point the trail is very rough and it will depend if others have been there recently as to whether or not you can even find your way! An experienced local guide is usually required. Following the ridge west, the trail (if there still is one or if you can identify any ribbons or markings on trees) drops down a fair way before leading over a minor top (2,213m) and down again and finally up quite steeply to a junction of mountain ridges (2,164m).
This junction is a very important spot for navigation so make sure you can identify it easily and mark it in your GPS if you have one. In November 2018, there was a very simple shelter made out of branches at this junction. Turning right here would take you northwards which is not the direct you want to be going in and in any case there is seemingly no trail in this direction. The higher peaks of Gunung Biru and the unnamed true peak of the range lie to the south so you need to take a left here at the junction of ridges. it should have taken you around 3 hours and 30 minutes to reach this point (not including breaks) so just a little over an hour from the first Anjasmoro peak.
If you were to take a right at the ridge junction (i.e head northwards) you would reach an un-named peak with a height of 2,253m on the Bako map (after about 1km). This ridge continues northwards for a further 2km to (confusingly) another peak labelled Gunung Biru on the Bako map (1,864m). Let’s call this Biru North (or ‘Biru Utara’) to try to avoid confusion. Anyway, you almost certainly do not want to be heading in this direction!
Heading south from the mountain ridge junction, the trail actually improves and can be seen clearly, even if parts of it are hidden in dense bracken and other vegetation from time to time. After about one hour from the ridge junction, you will find yourself on a pleasant, flat narrow ridge surrounded by pine trees (Biru camp, 2,251m on the Bakosurtanal map, 2,265m on GPS). It should have taken you no more than 5 hours in total to have reached this point.
This little spot is probably the best place to camp on this side of the mountain as the views are fantastic. You can see Arjuno-Welirang, Semeru, Butak and the Anjasmoro range’s most striking peak – the jagged Gunung Boklorobubuh (2,230m) (Gunung 4).
Just beyond Biru camp is a very narrow section of ridge. This is the best spot for photos, but also rather dangerous indeed so take real care here as the drops on both sides are near-vertical in places. The reason we have called this camp spot Biru camp is because it is the lower section of a major peak in the Anjasmoro range known as Gunung Biru (‘blue mountain’). In fact, you could call the camp spot Gunung Biru first top, as there is a second ‘summit’ clearly visible a couple of hundred metres further south, and this second top obscures the true highest peak of Gunung Biru (2,331m according to Bakosurtanal and 2,340m according to GPS).
Getting to the top of the highest peak of Gunung Biru from Biru camp is quite a challenge, as the path disintegrates and there are sections of very steep, narrow ridge with nothing much stable to hold on to. For the brave, it takes around one hour to cover just 650m distance or so heading south-west and the ridge goes via another minor top (2,315m)! There is lots of evidence of wild pigs living here, and if there is a trail at all then it is probably one created by babi hutan rather than by humans! The true summit of Gunung Biru (Gunung 2) is totally overgrown at the time of writing, with a few logs and stumps to climb onto to enjoy the views back to Welirang and other peaks.
As you will see from the top of Gunung Biru, the ridge continues west and south-west, to another peak about 1.2km away. This western peak, which is rarely-visited and has no name on the Bakosurtanal map, is the highest in the entire range at 2,372m (Gunung 1). Unfortunately there is no trail and the drop between the two peaks is substantial – perhaps over 150m down and then back up again. If there was a trail to follow it might only take an hour each way. As it is, it would probably take a minimum of two hours each way, fighting with the undergrowth the whole time. That means approximately 8 hours minimum from Cangar (one-way).
Obviously, if you are intent on reaching the true highest peak of the Anjasmoro mountain range, there are basically two options to consider. Firstly, unless you want to have to retrace your footsteps up and down a complex network of ridges and spend a second night camping on the range, one thing to do is set off from the Cangar trailhead no later than 6am and do a full one-day traverse of the highest peaks in the range, culminating in the highest peak, before (hopefully) dropping down to Pujon where there is a farm track or trail as high up as 1,500m. The last part would be the most difficult and locating a trail could prove very hard and an experienced local guide would be essential for this. You could of course split this traverse into two days, but carrying large backpacks on the section of narrow ridge between Biru camp and Gunung Biru summit is not recommended.
The more sensible option would be to enjoy this side of the mountain (Anjasmoro peak, ridge junction, Biru camp – and perhaps Gunung Biru peak) and try to do a separate hike to the true highest peak from the Pujon side if a suitable trail can be found (see below).
To return to the Cangar trailhead from Gunung Biru peak takes around 4 or 4 and a half hours. Note that there is an alternate route down to Sumber Brantas from Anjasmoro peak (Gunung 3) but this is not of much use to those who have left vehicles at the defunct mushroom factory.
FROM THE SOUTH: True highest peak (2,372m) in the Anjasmoro range from Pujon.
You might think that the highest peak (Gunung 1) of the Anjasmoro range would already be a popular target for hikers. But at present it is very rarely visited and as noted above it does not even have an official name on the Bakosurtanal map. There are no signs so you need someone who has already been there or has the GPS data.
After several failed attempts, local hikers finally found a good route up onto the ridge in 2020, from the highest farm tracks above Borah (1,263m), Wiyurejo beyond Pujon. This route is unofficial and so vague in places as to be totally overgrown and leads via a minor top marked on the Bakosurtanal map as Gunung Petungamolok (2,096m). Occasional ridge tracks here are used by hunters (or the hunted!) and seem to vanish and re-appear. Navigating here is hard work and the vegetation is often dense, depending on how recently others visited. There is no water available on the trail.
It is not an easy hike at all, yet the stunning view in clear weather from the true summit make this a very worthwhile challenge indeed. There are numerous plantation paths above the village of Borah leading up the cultivated parts of the hillside above a pleasant river. They key is finding the correct spur to get up onto Gunung Petungamolok.
From Borah, follow the stone track up the hillside before taking a right downhill a little way and crossing a bridge over a small river. The trail in this section is mostly made of stone or cement slabs. As the trail leads higher up the hillside, through carrot fields, a right turn is required up onto the overgrown ridge (1,537m) where there is a vague trail.
From this point, follow the ridge as best as you can, through patchy forest and deep reeds. Soon you should be able to see Gunung Semeru on the right and Gunung Petungamolok ahead of you. The latter is your immediate target, and appears like a small grassy pyramid on a high ridge.
There is a small Pos (1,948m) at which point the trail changes direction and veers towards Petungamolok. There is not much shade in this area but to make up for the heat, in clear weather you will be able to see the ridges of Argowayang further west, behind a gently, steadily rising peak inbetween called Gunung Gentonggowok (2,155m – not to be confused with another peak of the same name still further west).
In the far distance you may be lucky enough to see Gunung Liman / Wilis and even Gunung Lawu on the border with Central Java. Looking back, south, you will see Gunung Butak / Kawi and the jagged pyramid peak of Gunung Kelud. And as you near the top of Petungamolok you will see the Arjuno-Welirang massif ahead of you and to the right side of the trail.
Watch out at an especially steep section of trail at around the 2,000m elevation mark, where the ground is a little crumbly and narrow. All of this terrain requires care as there are numerous hidden holes and stumps and logs to contend with. Progress is slow but in the distance beyond the grassy little top of Petungamolok is the highest peak of the entire Anjasmoro range. It looks close, but getting there is time-consuming. Even getting to Petungamolok can take 5 or 6 hours if nobody has been there recently.
Beyond Petungamolok, the trail descends to a col (2,073m) where the long grass gives way to forest again. This would make a reasonable place to camp, but the closer you are to the true summit, the better in terms of views and the summit itself is the only place you can gaze towards Boklorobubuh. As this is not commonly-hiked terrain, you basically need to choose somewhere relatively flat and comfortable and make your own ‘Pos’.
The vegetation remains dense in places, including thorny plants and thick bracken or ferns, but the views to either side of the ridge really do make up for it, especially early in the morning at around sunrise and just after. From Petungamolok to the summit can take anything up to 3 hours, once again depending on if any other hikers have been through lately or not.
The last little section is very exciting as you gain the summit ridge and see Boklorobubuh through the trees. Once at the top there is an unobstructed views towards Anjasmoro’s most iconic peak, and further along the ridge to Gunung Biru and Penanggungan behind.
The simple summit itself has no signs. But it’s a beautiful spot with pine trees and more than enough flat space for 2 or 3 tents. This special place is the highest in the entire Anjasmoro range and few have enjoyed its delights.
Getting back the same way to Borah takes around 5 hours. Heading on to Gunung Biru is unknown, but passing via several tops and descending to Cangar is likely to require significantly more time than returning the same way to Borah.
Bagging information by Dan Quinn (last updated September 2020). The September 2020 expedition was kindly supported by Tjiasmanto Conservation Fund.
For a high quality PDF version of this and other trail maps, please download from our Trail Maps page.
- Getting there: Malang is the closest airport for Cangar and Pujon. Both Cangar and Pujon are about 90 minutes from Malang by car or motorbike. For the Wonosalam route to Cemorosewu (Gunung Gede) or an attempt on Boklorobubuh or Kukusan, best fly to Surabaya or better still take a train to Jombang (1 hour by car to Carangwulung near Wonosalam) or Mojokerto (less than 1 hour by car to Rejosari and other nearby trailheads).
- Guides and GPS Tracks: Want a PDF version for your phone? Looking for a guide? Need GPS tracks and waypoints? Gunung Anjasmoro information pack can be downloaded here.
- Permits: For the Carangwulung, Wonosalam route simply register at the building next to the mosque in the village of Segunung. For the Cangar route, register at the office on the right side of the road at around 1,650m elevation between Sumber Brantas and Cangar. Approximately Rp15,000 each (or Rp50,000 per foreigner) in 2018. Take a photocopy of your passport photo page just incase.
- Water sources: Near Pos 3 on the Carangwulung, Wonosalam route. None on the Cangar or Rejosari routes – take plenty of bottled water with you.
- Travel insurance: We recommend World Nomads insurance, which is designed for adventurous travellers with cover for overseas medical, evacuation, baggage and a range of adventure sports and activities including mountain hiking.
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Origins and Meaning
According to Pak Ismail Lufti, Professor of Archaeology at Universitas Negeri Malang, based on Tantu Panggelaran, an ancient Javanese book, the original name for Anjasmoro was Ardikemukus, from ‘ardi‘ meaning earth, land, or mountain and ‘kemukus‘ meaning cone.