- Elevation: 2,563 m (8,409 ft)
- Prominence: 2,130 m
- Ribu category: Tinggi Sedang
- Province: Jawa Timur (East Java)
- Google Earth: kml
- Other names: Ngliman, Wilis
This peak is the highest point of a vast and complex mountain range most commonly-known as Wilis. There are three main peaks, each of which is the highest in one section of the range: Liman (2,563m – the mountain ridge to the west), Limas (2,376m or higher – the eastern mountains) and Wilis (2,182m – the southern mountains) but there are a large number of other peaks with considerable drops between them. Wilis is the most well-known name and Limas is the most often often climbed (from Roro Kuning via Nganjuk, or sometimes from the Kediri side at Besuki.)
Liman itself is rarely climbed and unfortunately access is a grey area, although the situation seems to be improving as more local hikers wish to visit. Technically, at least until recently it would appear that the most of the mountain range is closed for ordinary access (unless you are conducting scientific research, for example) and this has been the case since 2006, presumably when a change in the forestry law, or the implementation of a new one, closed access to wild places across Java if they were not on a recognised climbing lane.
For ascents from Kediri or Sedudo waterfall near Nganjuk, you may be able to obtain special permission from KPH in Kediri, but even if you get lucky they are likely to send their staff members on the expedition with you – and charge a considerable price for it. It’s a bizarre and incomprehensible situation given the popularity of hiking in the province and the fact that more hikers means more people visiting the area and hence more revenue for local people. So, you can either get on with it yourself, ignoring the strict rules (which are, or course, ignored by local farmers anyway) or attempt bureaucratic negotiations which are tiresome and often unpleasant. Finding local guides can also be difficult because so few people know the mountain range.
From Sedudo waterall, Nganjuk:
At first glance, the most accessible starting point would appear to be Sedudo. The waterfall is a popular place with local people and is indeed very impressive. It is about one hour by motor vehicle from the friendly and laidback town of Nganjuk via Sawahan. The entrance gates and ticket booth are at an elevation of 930m but the road itself leads all the way to the waterfall itself at 1,250m. From here, steps lead down to the waterfall and a trail leads across to the right along the side of the ridge to the right of the waterfall. This vague and overgrown path is very tiresome to follow in the heat and makes for incredibly slow progress but it does eventually lead up to the top of a ridge (1,388m) which has a reasonable path running along the top of it, used by local farmers. There are good views eastwards to Penanggungan and Arjuno-Welirang in the distance and a small hill in the north, lying north of Nganjuk, labelled Gunung Gede on Google Maps but seemingly known as Gunung Pandan to local people.
From the trail on the ridge, you would be forgiven for thinking that it would be an easy stroll southwards up onto the highest parts of the ridge. After a kilometre or so of steady climbing along a perceivable path, the trail almost entirely disintegrates, at an elevation of about 1,750m. This is perhaps because local farmers do not climb much higher than this and very few people climb this way.
The terrain is very troublesome – steep, sometimes bouldery long grass where you never know just how or where you next step is going to land. Overgrown is an understatement. It is assumed that the terrain is similar for much of the Liman ridge, sadly due to the fact that it is so rarely hiked at the present time and it would be a rather time-consuming expedition to reach the highest point of the range from this route.
From Pulosari, Kare, Madiun:
Better still is to start from the Madiun side at the tiny hamlet of Pulosari (1,248m) near the town of Kare. Local hikers should have no problem if they bring photocopies of their ID cards to the security post at Kempo (900m) but foreigners hardly ever climb this mountain range so eyebrows are likely to be raised and senior security officers and police asked if it is ok for you to proceed. Even with local hikers as guides and photocopies of your passport you should expect to have to wait a couple of hours for clearance.
Motorbikes or 4WD are essential to reach the trailheadf at Pulosari because the plantation track is in poor condition and often muddy during the rainy season. From Pulosari, the trail leads up along a overgrown ridge on which are a couple of cement markers (first is at 1,445m). The best advice that is simple to remember is to ‘stay to the right’ because there is a junction (1,450m) just an hour beyond Pulosari where the trail to Liman leaves the main trail (which continues, flat, into the forest). This is where another less-popular route up from Wates, Sawahan meets the ridge. There is another cement marker at 1,525m. The trees in this area were badly damaged by forest fires in September/October 2012 and so the trail is almost impossible to see at this point.
A little higher up, you reach a field of tall grass (1,600m) through which runs a very clear footpath. 20 minutes beyond this is a small shelter at the entrance to the forest (1,630m). After about 30 minutes ascending in the forest, the trail leads out onto the grassy, overgrown ridge of the mountain (1,730m). Gloves are advisable because this grass can be razor-sharp. Unfortunately the terrain remains like this for much of the rest of the climb, but the frustrating nature of the trail is somewhat balanced by the pleasant views which improve with every metre gained. A decent place to rest is Watu Ombo (2,085) – a jumble of rocks one of which is large and flat – perfect for sitting on. After a total of around 5 hours you will have reached an excellent flat area of short grass perfect for camping (2,203m) just beyond a couple of rocks incluing Watu Garuda – ‘Garuda Rock’. In good weather you can see Lawu to the west and the city of Madiun to the north.
From the camping area it is still about 2 and a half hours to the northern Liman peak (2,552m on Bako maps) and another 1 hour to the grave peak which according to GPS devices is the highest of them all (2,555m on Bako maps but more likely 2,563m as suggested by other sources). A final, southern peak around ten metres lower in elevation (2,541m on Bako) is a further 30-45 minutes so a very early start is essential if you want to check all the likely candidates for the true summit and be back down in Madiun by the end of your second day. The distance is not so great but the terrain remains tough to negotiate for much of the journey and a machete may be helpful.
Just southeast of the camping area is a minor top, Puncak Batas (2,355m), named so because it has a boundary marker at the summit. The trail then drops down a little bit before meeting the vague trail up from Sedudo at a wooden ‘x’ sign (2,345m). Beyond here, heading south, you are now on the Ngliman ridge. The next point of interest is another boundary marker (2,465m) before a small shelter and grave (2,528m), complete with incense sticks and signs that someone stays here from time to time just north of the northern top. From this area you can enjoy views through the trees to the lesser summit of Limas to the east in the direction of Kediri. The northern top (2,560m on GPS, 2,552m on Bako maps) is just ten minutes further and features a small, oval stone structure built into the ground which may or may not be another ancient grave.
From here it is another 1 kilometre southwest as the ridge curves round of hard slogging through seriously overgrown terrain to reach the true peak with a grave and boundary marker on it and finally the southern top which appears to be a bit lower based on both the Bako map and GPS readings.
Very, very few people ever continue beyond the northern top. The middle top (between north and south tops and seemingly the highest) features a small grave of unknown antiquity and another boundary marker. If you want to be sure you have bagged the highest point, best continue to the southern peak, as there is not much difference in elevation between the north top, the middle grave top and the southern top. The mountain ridge descends to a col where lots of wild pig (‘babi hutan’) droppings can be seen. Pick your way through the dense undergrowth and ascend up the steep, final section of the climb to the southernmost peak over 2,500m of this remote mountain area.
The southern top features a pine tree into which someone has inscribed ‘GI 2010’. Be careful here because there are lots of holes between rotten tree stumps. To have made it this far – onto one of the most remote and least-visited high points of Java – you deserve a serious pat on the back. Enjoy the views before slogging all the way back to camp and back down to Pulosari (reached in 7 hours total by fast hikers) or spend another night back at the Watu Garuda camp area.
Once out of the forest on the way down towards Pulosari, make sure you do not simply follow the good path through the long grass. You need to take a slight left and head down the scrubby, partially-burnt ridge on which are the couple of cement posts. Making this mistake could leave you in a very remote area far from Pulosari so take extra special care at this point.
In the future, an approach from Pundak Kulon to the south may be an attractive option, although this is a more remote area and no signs of a trail leading up from that side were spotted during a December 2012 trip to the highest tops.
Wates, Sawahan route
The other route mentioned above which is not popular yet and could be overgrown starts in the hamlet of Wates (855m) to the north of the range. You can actually get motorbikes as far as the last house (1,030m). From here, a local guide is necessary. Follow the vague trail south and fill up water bottles at the stream just to the west of the trail (1,085m). Another stream is passed (1,230m) before finally meeting the main trail in from Pulosari on the ridge at 1,450m.
Gunung Limas (c2,376m with a prominence of around 552m)
The most popular trek on the range is to the top of Gunung Limas, which is to the eastern side of the highest ridges of the range and is a thoroughly worthwhile trek with good views. Although Gunung Limas is sometimes climbed from near Kediri, the primary route starts at the village of Bajulan (704m) near Roro Kuning waterfall, which is less than one hour by motorbike or car from Nganjuk.
From the very friendly basecamp, the route leads along a plantation track through corn and cassava fields before entering forest scrub (895m). It then passes Pos Panjer (1,120m) which is a very tiny clearing in the scrub which you should have reached after an hour or so. Look out for interesting wildlife in this area as we saw a critically-endangered slow loris.
The next Pos is Pos Gentongan (1,206m) and then an un-named Pos sometimes called Pos Bayangan (1,260m). Watu Tahu (1,311m) soon follows and this is not a ‘stone of knowledge’ as you might hope but rather a rock shaped a bit like a cube of tahu (tofu)! After this you gain a ridge at another small pos that can fit a tent or two small ones (1,350m). From here, the vegetation becomes less as the low-growing grass dominates, meaning excellent views from this slightly undulating ridge. Remember suncream!
Pos Alap Alap (1,376m) is reached (after around a total of 2 hours from the start) and in less than 30 minutes you will be at the favoured camping spot called Pos Sekartaji (1,475m). This is an area of ridge with attractive boulders and two ancient stone structures, one of which now only features the very base). Down to the right near the bamboo is a water source which explains the popularity of the spot for camping.
Gunung Limas is still rather quiet compared to most mountains in Java but you will almost certainly meet local students on weekends. This means a trail which is clear enough to follow and with sufficient but non-intrusive signage and very little litter.
Those that you meet at Sekartaji will probably be surprised if you have made it up there in 2 and a half hours, but unless you are carrying camping equipment there is no reason why fit hikers cannot be there in under 3 hours. Allow a further 2.5 to 3 hours to reach the summit ridge and around 4-5 hours total for the descent.
Sekartaji is a pleasant spot for sunrise, with views to Arjuno-Welirang and Gunung Butak, but even higher up is even better, with a shapely triangular top on the neighbouring ridge to the north and a large rock on the neighbouring ridge to the south. Because of the lack of trees the views are wonderful, especially early in the morning. Gunung Pandan (897m) can be seen below to the north of Nganjuk.
Beyond Sekartaji, Pos Pospan (1,895m) is reached after an hour of steep hiking, and apparently marks the meeting point with the less well-used trail up from the Kediri side. Pos Cemoro Beser (2,114m) comes next and is clump of tall pine trees. Just after these is a tough section with a simple rope where you need to pull yourself up very steep terrain of ten metres or so. The ridge around here is narrow in places and the trail rather slippery too, so be very careful.
After Cemoro Beser be sure to look out for lutung which are known to live in this area. Finally, after a total of 5-6 hours (or 2.5-3 from Sekartaji) you will find yourself at what local hikers regard as the summit. There is a flag, some signs and a simple pillar of some sort. There is also partial remains of a ancient stone carving and in clear weather some great views over to the Liman ridge about 5 kilometres to the west.
True peakbaggers will probably see that there is higher ground along the ridge to the left and indeed the highest GPS reading we got (around 2,378m compared to 2,368m for the signs) was about 100 metres away (less than 5 minutes) where the views to Liman are even clearer. In between the two you might spot the remains of what might have once been a trig pillar and may have been the source for the 2,368m figure on the Bakosurtanal map of the area.
According to the Bakosurtanal map, the highest peak in this part of the range is actually about 1 kilometre south of the usual summit with signs, through thick undergrowth. It is apparently 2,402m in elevation but is not named on the map. If anyone has visited with a GPS then let us know as a confirmed height of around 2,402m would mean this ‘Limas Selatan’ peak has a prominence of around 578m and ought to be the real target for hikers here.
Gunung Wilis (2,182m) may give its name to the range as a whole but is only the third highest peak of the range (and not even third if you count the various tops near Limas and Liman and both Gunung Lombok and Gunung Keber between them in the very inaccessible heart of the range).
However it is probably the third most prominent and certainly represents the main target for hikers exploring the remote southern side.
The nearest large town with a railway station is Tulungagung from where it is about an hour to the starting point in Geger, Desa Sendang. This village is around 900 metres above sea level and so it’s no surprise that cabbage is a common crop here. There are also small areas of tea plantation higher up.
The trail itself is slowly growing in popularity but is not yet as overloaded as most other peaks in Java and and has much to recommend it. The exact location of the trailhead is at Candi Penampihan (1,017m), a Hindu relic of the ancient Mataram era that is well looked-after by locals. Note that there is another temple called Candi Sekar on the Bakosurtanal map. This is several kilometres further east in Nglurup which is at a similar elevation and also has tea plantations.
The trail to the peak takes around 4 hours or less for most keen hikers, passing vegetable fields before Pintu Rimba (1,145m), Pos 1 Gathak (1,165m), water source junction (1,315m), and most notably Pos 2 Watu Godek (1,586m). Watu Godek is an impressive notched rock with some Hindu grafitti and also the point at which a minor trail leads down to the left to Lawean waterfall.
Next is Pos 3 Selomatangkep (1,900m) which is probably the best Pos to pitch a tent or two, although most continue to the grassy summit ridge. After Pos 3, the vegetation becomes less dense and then there is a section absolutely full of orchids. Shortly after you find yourself in waste-deep grasses and with a view of the other peaks in the range to the north. The trail curves round along the summit ridge to the right and the true Wilis peak, marked with some local hiking club signs and a collection of stones.
This is a great place to camp and there is enough room for tens of tents, though given it takes less than 3 hours back down the hike can easily be accomplished in a single day if you start early enough.
There are leeches on this side of the range so come prepared if hiking during the rainy season. About 1 kilometre due east of the summit is the second highest in this area – Gunung Slurup (2,048m) according to Bakosurtanal.
Additional short hike: Anyone staying in the Kediri area after hiking Liman or Limas might want to hike Gunung Budheg (483m) just a few kilometres south of the town of Tulungagung. Up a steep, well-used muddy trail it takes just one hour to reach the first summit (463m) which is just beyond a telecommunications tower. From the first top are great views to the Liman-Wilis range and to the higher peak which is only about 20 metres higher. Both tops are on near-vertical cliffs and are presumably an ancient volcanic plug of some sort.
It takes just ten minutes to hike between the two tops but watch out for aggressive monkeys. The summit is popular at weekends with local students camping and/or photographing the sunset or sunrise.
Bagging information by Daniel Quinn (January 2013), Budheg information added November 2017, Limas information added February 2018, Wilis information updated August 2020. The August 2020 expedition was kindly supported by Tjiasmanto Conservation Fund.
For a high quality PDF version of this and other trail maps, please download from our Trail Maps page.
- Getting there: One or two express trains between Jakarta and Malang/Surabaya/Jombang call at Nganjuk and Tulungagung and many call at Madiun. For Sedudo from Nganjuk there are angkots to Pasar Sawahan (Rp 7,000) from where you can get an ojek to Sedudo waterfall. For Pulosari you really need locals with motorbikes or a 4WD.
- Guides and GPS Tracks: Want a PDF version for your phone? Looking for a guide? Need GPS tracks and waypoints? Gunung Liman information pack can be downloaded here.
- Permits: You may wish to speak to KPH (Kesatuan Pemangku Hutan) in Kediri but if you start from Pulosari near Kare you may find things easier to arrange with local security and police officials. Register with locals for the Limas and Wilis trails.
- Water sources: Available at Sedudo waterfall and in two places low down the trail on the Wates route but none available higher up or on the more popular Pulosari route. Take more than you need for what is a very wild hike. Available at Sekartaji (1,475m) on the trail to Limas peak. Available off the trail at 1,315m on the Wilis trail.
- Travel insurance: We recommend World Nomads insurance, which is designed for adventurous travellers with cover for overseas medical, evacuation, baggage and a range of adventure sports and activities including mountain hiking.
Local Average Monthly Rainfall (mm):
Origins and Meaning
Elephant Mountain. Liman is the high Javanese (krama) word for “elephant”. Elephants used to be fairly plentiful in Java but they have now died out completely on the island. Nevertheless there are several place names that recall the presence of elephants, including Gunung Liman which (presumably) is so called because it has the big, solid, greyish appearance of an elephant. Gunung Wilis = Dark Green Mountain. In Javanese wilis means “dark green”, especially dark burnished green like the shiny dark metallic green on the wings of a beetle. (George Quinn, 2011)